Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Current Passions Year 2017 Artificial intelligence a modern approach pdf 4th edition newest book, The Inevitable, reached the New York Times bestseller list in 2016. This book is about the deep trends over the next 20 years that will shape your life. My current passion this year is all Asia.
I am finishing up a huge, huge book of my documentary photographs of the disappearing traditions of Asia, between Turkey and Japan. I will try to get to the few remaining countries of Asia that I have not yet visited. The still-untitled book should be published in 2018. Three years ago I published my first fiction, The Silver Cord. I worked on it for 11 years!
At 464 oversized pages, this huge book was fan-funded, the result of a successful Kickstarter-funded campaign. It is now available on Amazon. This site operates under a Creative Commons License. Please forward this error screen to 184. Our sites are currently under maintenance.
This article is about the use and knowledge of techniques and processes for producing goods and services. A steam turbine with the case opened. Such turbines produce most of the electricity used today. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated.
Electrification is believed to be the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. The use of the term “technology” has changed significantly over the last 200 years. The term “technology” rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that “technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them.
Bain’s definition remains common among scholars today, especially social scientists. Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary offers a definition of the term: “the use of science in industry, engineering, etc. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. The word “technology” can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques.
When combined with another term, such as “medical technology” or “space technology,” it refers to the state of the respective field’s knowledge and tools. Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. The distinction between science, engineering, and technology is not always clear. Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation. Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge.
The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Hominids started using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but approximately 75,000 years ago, pressure flaking provided a way to make much finer work. The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind. 380 ka, humans were constructing temporary wood huts.
The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance that allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization. The wheel was invented circa 4000 BCE. Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. Nile boat dating to the 8th millennium BCE.
The invention of the wheel revolutionized trade and war. It did not take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads. The ancient Sumerians used the potter’s wheel and may have invented it. The oldest known constructed roadways are the stone-paved streets of the city-state of Ur, dating to circa 4000 BCE and timber roads leading through the swamps of Glastonbury, England, dating to around the same time period.
Ancient Minoan private homes had running water. A bathtub virtually identical to modern ones was unearthed at the Palace of Knossos. The ancient Romans also had a complex system of aqueducts, which were used to transport water across long distances. The first Roman aqueduct was built in 312 BCE.