This theory sees communication as an exchange of behaviors, where one individual’a first look at communication theory griffin pdf behavior can be used to violate the expectations of another. Participants in communication will perceive the exchange either positively or negatively, depending upon an existing personal relationship or how favorably the violation is perceived.

Beyond proxemics and examining how people interpret violations in many given communicative contexts, EVT also makes specific predictions about individuals’ reaction to given expectation violations: individuals reciprocate or match someone’s unexpected behavior, and they also compensate or counteract by doing the opposite of the communicator’s behavior. The expectancy violations theory examines three main components in interpersonal communication situations: Expectancies, communicator reward valence, and violation valence. Expectancy refers to what an individual anticipates will happen in a given situation. Expectancies are primarily based upon social norms and specific characteristics and idiosyncrasies of the communicators. Rather, they have various expectations of how others should think and behave. EVT proposes that observation and interaction with others leads to expectancies. The two types of expectancies noted are predictive and prescriptive.

When the theory was first proposed, EVT identified three factors which influence a person’s expectations: Interactant variables, environmental variables, and variables related to the nature of the interaction. Interactant variables are the traits of those persons involved in the communication, such as sex, attractiveness, race, culture, status, and age. These factors later evolved into communicator characteristics, relational characteristics, and context. Communicator characteristics include personal features such as an individual’s appearance, personality and communication style. It also includes factors such as age, sex and ethnic background.

Anticipatory Speech Anxiety as a Function of Public Speaking Assignment Type. Beyond proxemics and examining how people interpret violations in many given communicative contexts, the occurrence of arousal is aligned with threats. The threat threshold is high when people feel good even if they keep a very close distance with the violator, in terms of the response to expectancy violations, it is possible to predict people’s behavior in a lawlike fashion. Like framework to explain and predict other’s behavior, in relationships there is an unspoken expectation when interacting and that is the significant other will give their full undivided attention when in the presence of their significant other.

Behavioural expectations may also shift depending on the environment one is experiencing. For example, a visit to a church will produce different expectations than a social function. The expected violations will therefore be altered. Similarly, expectations differ based on culture. The communicator reward valence is an evaluation one makes about the person who committed a violation of expectancy. Em Griffin summarizes the concept behind Communicator Reward Valence as “the sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter plus the potential to reward or punish in the future”.

When examining the context, relationship, and communicator’s characteristics in a given encounter, individuals will arrive at an expectation for how that person should behave. Changing even one of these expectancy variables may lead to a different expectation. Behavior violations arouse and distract, calling attention to the qualities of the violator and the relationship between the interactants. A key component of EVT is the notion of violation valence, or the association the receiver places on the behavior violation. Another perspective of violation valence is that the perceived positive or negative value assigned to a breach of expectations is inconsequential of who the violator is. This perspective places much greater weight on the act of the breach itself than the violator.